The effect of neonatal Handling on the learned helplessness model of depression.

Researchers examined the effects of neonatal handling on learned helplessness (LH) in rats.  They discuss prior research that showed a variety of benefits associated with neonatal handling such as improved escape latency and lower emotional reactivity.  They express that rats who have been handled have a permanent augmentation of the glucocorticoid receptors in their hippocampi. …

Impairment of spatial learning and memory induced by learned helplessness and chronic mild stress.

This study examined the influence of learned helplessness (LH) and chronic mild stress (CMS) on spatial learning and memory in mice.  Researchers indicate that the hippocampal complex plays an important role in many common psychiatric disorders, spatial awareness, and is also involved in LH which is similar to depression in humans.   There were 6 groups …

Learned Helplessness

Title:  Learned Helplessness  Authors: Martin E. P. Seligman, Ph.D Journal:  Annual Review of Medicine Year of Publication: 1972 Volume: 23 Pages: 407-412 Hypothesis:   It is the uncontrollable nature of inescapable shocks that produce learned helplessness and not shocks themselves. Subjects:  Dogs Methods: Dogs in the control group were placed in a shuttle box and …

Divalproex Sodium (Depakote)

2019 Article where I explore the psychiatric drug Divalproex Sodium. Divalproex Sodium is a medication that is used as an anti-convulsant, antiepileptic, and mood stabilizer.  Some common names include Depakote, Depakene, and Valproic Acid.  Its chemical formula is C16H31NaO4.  Divalproex Sodium is a fatty acid comprised of sodium valproate and valproic acid.  When consumed the …

Logical Fallacies that affect our Society Today

Writen in 2016 this article explores logical fallacies and the 2016 Presidential Election. Our modern world is filled with all different kinds of people.  As such it’s no surprise that there are disagreements in our society today.  When examining today’s social problems it’s important to know what types of logical fallacies there are and what …

Effects of Concentration and Molecular Weight on Diffusion

A lab report from early 2016 when I was still a science newbie: Introduction:  We attempted to discern what effect a solution’s molecular weight and concentration would have on its diffusion in an agar gel. Hypothesis:  Liquids with higher concentration will disperse faster than liquids of low concentration in the agar.  Liquids with high molecular weight will disperse …